Whilst the Luxembourg fortress was a true textbook example of European military architecture, it has changed hands many times over its existence. Italian, Spanish, Belgian, French, Austrian, Dutch and Prussian engineers have been involved in progressively extending the fortifications of this stronghold. Traces of their work remain, and what traces! Since 1994, the fortifications and the old city have been classed as a UNESCO world heritage site.
An extraordinary network of 23km of underground galleries, the famous casemates, which were carved from the city’s rocks constitute the city’s main attraction.
The Grand-Duke’s residence, the Grand-Ducal palace, has an exceptionally beautiful facade in Flemish Rennaissance style (16th century), and a majestic interior and ceremonial rooms open to the public during the summer only. In the Notre-Dame Cathedral, 17th century rood screen contrasts with the 20th century windows.
The medieval houses in the outlying areas harmoniously blend with the avant-garde architecture of the Kirchberg plateau, the European institution area.
Luxembourg has always held a privileged position in the process of European integration. Since the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) in 1952, several European institutions have set up in the capital. The birthplace of one of the fathers of Europe, Robert Schuman, Luxembourg has the vocation of playing the role of one of the European capitals not only due to its geographical situation right in the heart of Europe, but also due to its multilingualism. Cosmopolitan and welcoming, with a population made up of almost 150 different nationalities, the city is a real economic, social and cultural melting-pot.